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Fundamental Cloud Architectures

Thomas Erl, Amin Naserpour

Thomas Erl

Amin Naserpour

This article introduces and describes several of the more common foundational cloud architectural models, each exemplifying a common usage and characteristic of contemporary cloud-based environments. The involvement and importance of different combinations of cloud computing mechanisms in relation to these architectures are explored. IT resources can be horizontally scaled via the addition of one or more identical IT resources, and a load balancer that pro-vides runtime logic capable of evenly distributing the workload among the available IT resources. The resulting workload distribution architecture reduces both IT resource over-utilization and under-utilization to an extent dependent upon the sophistication of the load balancing algorithms and runtime logic. A redundant copy of Cloud Service A is implemented on Virtual Server B. The load balancer intercepts cloud service consumer requests and directs them to both Virtual Servers A and B to ensure even workload distribution. This fundamental architectural model can be applied to any IT resource, with workload distribution commonly carried out in support of distributed virtual servers, cloud storage devices, and cloud services. Load balancing systems applied to specific IT resources usually produce specialized variations of this ar-chitecture that incorporate aspects of load balancing, such as: the service load balancing architecture explained later in this chapter, the load balanced virtual server architecture covered in...

SOA Maturity Alongside Contract Standardization Enterprise Service Bus

Jürgen Kress, Berthold Maier, Hajo Normann, Danilo Schmiedel, Guido Schmutz, Bernd Trops, Clemens Utschig-Utschig, Torsten Winterberg

Jürgen Kress Berthold Maier Hajo Normann
Danilo Schmiedel Guido Schmutz Bernd Trops Clemens Utschig-Utschig Torsten Winterberg

In this article, we present and explore the fundamentals of applying the factory approach to modern service-oriented software development in an attempt to marry SOA industrialization with service contracts. As service developers and designers, how can we successfully fulfill factory requirements and achieve the essential characteristic of industrialized SOA while remaining compliant with standards on the service contract level? Thinking in terms of contracts has been found to be requisite for granular sourcing strategies that virtualize underlying implementations. Contracts also function as a common language between business units and IT teams, across cloud computing technologies, and for future-proof and agile enterprises in general. Let's imagine that today's "pre-industrialized" world has become one in which contracts are been replaced by organizational and technical silos and the best solutions available. In today's SOA landscape, functional components are created for specific applications, often redundantly and lacking organization-wide standardization at the interface level. These components work well in a "silo" landscape in which the "application SOA" architecture is particularly suitable within the context of single applications. Figure 1 illustrates the simplicity of combining services within applications that results from standardized design and structures being used as the framework for interfaces and exchanged data. If a business activity service (BAS) comprises business entity services (BESs) of different designs from multiple...

Everyone seems to need to use an enterprise service bus (ESB) nowadays, but there is much confusion about its actual benefit and the various concepts this term entails. This uncertainty is revealed in statements like, "Help! My boss says we need an ESB," or "Why do I need an ESB at all? Can't I achieve the same thing with BPEL or BPMN?" or even "We can do everything ourselves in language X." This article is an attempt to answer some of the most important questions surrounding this term using concrete examples, so that the areas of application that can be deemed "correct" for ESBs can be clarified. What exactly is the definition of an ESB? Is it a product or an architecture pattern? What are some practical uses for an ESB? Do I need an ESB to build an SOA platform? Which requirements do I need to satisfy? Which criteria can I use to select the ESB that is most suitable for my needs? An accepted definition for this term has yet to be firmly established that is most likely caused by a lack of industry standards, whereas standards like BPEL and BPMN 2.0 exist for process engines and other components. The term “Enterprise Service Bus” was coined by Gartner in 2002, and further introduced by the analyst Roy Schulte to describe a category of software products that he observed were available on the market at that time. Ten years later, there is still very little agreement on what exactly an ESB is or what it should deliver. There are different definitions depending on the manufacturer or source. Among other things, an ESB is defined as...

Promoting Organizational Visibility for SOA
and SOA Governance Initiatives - Part I

Manuel Rosa, André Sampaio

Manuel Rosa

André Sampaio

Since the costs of technology assets can become significant for organizations, the need to centralize, monitor and control the contribution of each technology asset exists. Through the implementation of various mechanisms, it is possible to obtain a holistic vision and develop synergies between different assets, empowering their re-utilization and analyzing the impact on the organization caused by IT changes. When the SOA domain is considered, the issue of governance should therefore always come into play. Although SOA Governance is mandatory to achieve any measure of SOA success, its value still passes incognito in most organizations, mostly due to the lack of visibility and the detached view of the SOA initiatives. There are a number of problems that jeopardize the visibility of these initiatives: Understanding and measuring the value of SOA Governance and its contribution – SOA governance tools are too technical and isolated from other systems. They are inadequate for anyone outside of the domain (Business Analyst, Project Managers, or even some Enterprise Architects), and are especially harsh at the CxO level. Lack of information exchange with the business, other operational areas and project management – It is not only a matter of lack of dialog but also the question of using a common vocabulary (textual or graphic) that is adequate for all the stakeholders...

Service Security and Compliance in the Cloud

Raghu Yeluri, Sudhir S. Bangalore

Thomas Erl

One of the biggest barriers impeding broader adoption of cloud computing is security-the real and perceived risks of providing, accessing and control services in multitenant cloud environments. IT managers need higher levels of assurance that their cloud-based services and data are adequately protected as these architectures bypass or reduce the efficacy and efficiency of traditional security tools and frameworks. The ease with which services are migrated and deployed in a cloud environment brings significant benefits, but they are a bane from a compliance and security perspective. IT managers are looking for greater assurances of end-to-end service level integrity for these cloud-based services. This article explores challenges in deploying and managing services in a cloud infrastructure from a security perspective, and as an example, discusses work that Intel is doing with partners and the software vendor ecosystem to enable a security enhanced platform and solutions with security anchored and rooted in hardware and firmware to increase visibility and control in the cloud. The cloud computing approach applies the pooling of an on-demand, self- managed virtual infrastructure, consumed as a service. This approach abstracts applications from the complexity of the underlying infrastructure, which allows IT to focus on the enabling of business value and innovation. In terms of cost savings and business flexibility, this presents a boon to organizations. But IT practitioners...

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